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Histoire du Maghreb تاريخ المغرب الكبير

POWER, SOCIETY AND SUFISM IN MAGHRIB WESTERN MEDIEVAL -CLEAVAGES CONFLICTS-

Power, society and Sufism in Maghrib Western medieval

-Cleavages conflicts-

 

Abdelkader Hadouch

 

The three parties that make up this work are intended to analyze the divisions and inter-Muslim continuous and repetitive conflicts within the Western medieval Maghrib. The introduction of a practical and a speech about the terms of kufr, Jahiliya, bidca, Sharica, Islah illustrates the religious and historical context in which power; society and Sufism were from birth Berber dynasties in western Maghrib. Models and political practice of the Almoravids, Almohads and Merinides have succeeded under the banner of Islam, religion decisive social and political relations. Brutal and peaceful change within the space of the western Maghrib, the summit of power or within social groups, was linked to a repetitive message of some political practice in the middle Ages. Practices of riyâsa were from the attic Islam as political theories, organizational warriors, and tribal traditions.

In the first part, we began the chronology of the Almoravid movement, a very important choice for the historical course of this movement unifying and original since the Muslim conquest the territories ofof Gharb dar al-Islam. Religious revival of the Almoravids is often linked to Malikism; there is at least is that this revival brings together for the first time the important aspects in the constitution of the state and society Maghrib. The space of sovereignty was greatly expanded from previous experiences called separatism. The Western Maghrib map is unified for the first time in the hands of the same political and religious authority. The Reform Project Maliki Maghreb succeeded there or not expect, in a desert region, but vital to the business plan. The meeting of the power of Sanhaja confederation of Western Sahara and the missionary Maliki has forged a formidable political and religious experience of Islam to the western Maghrib.

The first chapter deals with the coalition of the establishment of political power from a triangle, which includes the tribal host society, the elites of the host society and part of the scholars of the Maghreb. Those within this triangular fermentation of a certain idea of riyâsa brought together important factors: reforms, sovereignty, legitimacy, the dogma of the state administration. Experience had made ​​their way into the collective memory for centuries and represented a landmark for the origins of Western power in particular Maghrib. The Almoravids opened the way to practical politics organized around a reformist project outcome of Islam, it was also attended by all the dynasties of the Western Maghrib, whatever their differences from the Almoravid course, they remain all related to the phenomenon of political-religious movement (Islah) and a tribal host society and the reformist character speech. We analyzed the course of this movement from this triangular to determine the factors of a new political practice deeply rooted in the traditions of Western Maghrib.

The second chapter is devoted to the problems of Almoravid power and direction after the two-headed movement of Ibn Yasin. The Malikism who had renovated the religious and political life in Arab sources say had not borne the brunt of the changes nomads Sanhaja become emirs and kings and the institution of fuqahâ ' traditionalist and legitimist that transformed the draft Ibn Yasin during the dynastic political sovereignty in an archaic project in crisis. The failure of this project charged to fuqahâ 'Malikihad crystallized all the passion. Economic and moral crisis Maliki criticized the Western Maghrib turned to fight against innovation in Muslim thought. The dakhil and Gharîb (abroad) two terms as fuqahâ' have watched coincided with the book Ihyâ' the issue of al-Ihyâ' very problematic on issues of Sufism to say specialists mysticism, it is also the Almoravid political level, since the fuqaha' have felt very reformist message sent directly to Uli al-Amr and the institution of fuqahâ

'The third chapter is devoted to speeches Sufism and reports with the Almoravid power. Sufism had made ​​progress in Andalusia and in the Maliki Islam, the social message was unmistakably directed to the populations of the cities and the countryside, would turn into a formidable protest platform after taking position Almoravids against the Ihyâ' book. The headlong rush of the Almoravids and their fuqahâ ' to hide the economic and social crisis of their projects by investing in debates about philosophical issues of al-Ihyâ had shifted Sufism in directions more protesters. The expression became increasingly revealed to the revolt of Ibn Qasi in Andalusia; the top opposition posted by Sufis to sectarian and deemed absolute power. When we read and reread the advent of the Almoravid movement and the opposition taking the Sufis Maghrib almoravide, it appeared that the power of the Sufi expression of these characters and their influence within the company were almoravide Fear the riyâsa. central If at first it was against the movement of Zuhd primary stage of Sufism related to the nature of Islam, it was after the failure of their project and the issue of al-Ihyâ' face of true leaders capable of lifting a part of society against them.

The second part of the coming of the Almohad dynasty in the Maghrib who had upset the data in the West. Muslim the Almohad Empire was founded in the middle of a sedentary space and the name of a propaganda of tawhid and Mahdism. The first chapter deals with the Almohad project that seems to reproduce a large extent its predecessor, although the Almohads were more organized. The system appears complex, very elaborate and very fascinating. Political practice of the Mahdi Ibn Tûmart within the host society Masmuda was very important, given the complexity of this confederation and policies divisions. Ibn Tûmart were based on an original organization had renovated organizationally within the politico-religious movements.

The second chapter deals with the fallout from the Almohad success on the evolution of Sufism in the Western Maghrib. At the beginning of the movement, it seems that the enemy had brought the Almoravid objectives of a pragmatic and Ibn Tûmart ihya'istes who did not hide their hostility to Lamtuna (if Ibn Qasi). After the death of Ibn Tûmart, and under the first Almohad caliphs, the culture of the unique and official thought had made ​​his way by a general attitude of crushing all the trends of Islam. Sufism as other doctrines pulls out of the game by avoiding confrontation, since the principles of the doctrine tûmartienne (Tawheed, Mahdism, and homecoming) were not in fundamental contradiction with the sor Sufism. At the same time, the attitude of facing the Almohad Sufism was not aggressive like their predecessors. In this respect, Sufism in its evolution had taken advantage of the Almohad period to assert itself more and more as a philosophy and a way of Islam in the Maghrib. The popularity of Oriental writings (al-Ihya' head) and the North Africans were widely publicized in the circles of urban education. At the same time, the popularity of Sufis in the masses through the cities and countryside of Maghrib contributed to the heyday of Sufism. It has become essential for the teaching of religious and major sciences on the social and psychological to the masses that this refuge behind the tracks and men called out of the ordinary. Indeed, Sufism, track, man, and patron saint was at the heart of cultural and political events through its presence as a way for murîdûn, ideas for the debate and the fundamental issues of spirituality of Islam. The spiritual quest, the social actions of Sufis and maintaining fundamental references (al-Qur'an and Sunna) have propelled the scene of the Almohad Maghrib and influential men must for governors and Almohad caliphs. The Almohad period saw a continuation of the controversy surrounding the book Ihyâ' attitudes of the poor (the Fuqara'), as well as social and economic justice. The most important of all the changes is the birth of Tawâ'if, sing. Tâ'ifa that would give the Maghrib, at the latest, the institution of zâwiya.

The third part deals mérinide the period or the establishment power and especially its legitimacy was very late and different experiences of triangular Almoravids and Almohads. The first chapter is devoted to the mutation that results directly from two major events of the Almohad history: the rejection of Mahdism and the defeat of Las Navas de Tolosa. These two events have played a key and direct role in fragmentation of the the West. Muslim Mérinides built their legitimacy around the Arab identity, belonging to the house of the Prophet, the promotion of education, and the celebration. Mawlid Mérinide The policy also promoted the shérifisme and attempts at rapprochement of Sufism. At the time mérinide, politics or rather the style of the riyâsa vis-à-vis Sufi joined the birth of a dynasty very challenging ideologically and religiously since the Dacwa dîniya and charismatic badly breached the mérinide host society in these early days of struggle for power.

The second chapter deals Sufism of the individual to gather in Tawâ'if the constitution of zawaya, which shows a changing society. Opening Marinids to Sufism to seek the originality of the ideological hue as predecessors, especially the return of a Malikism of fuqaha ', as was the case under the Almoravids, remains unlikely and questionable by critics Abu Hamid al-Ghazali and Mahdist Almohad, hence the opening to a religious and cultural pluralism which the mystical tendency had found a significant social policy field and after a period of Almoravid and Almohad rigor Mahdism. If Malikism and Mahdism were structured at all levels, Sufism is against by the medieval Maghrib and in particular, the mérinide time multitudes of channels with only link mysticism. From personal, experience the collective experience through the Sufis of the cities and the countryside. Sufism would be structured in communities (Tawâ'if), which raked in wider society Maghrib mérinide, so that the space of all political and religious movement does not involve the tribal confederation, but in the td 'ifa beyond its economic and tribal space. Sufism was to recognize a sense of place (Ribât, zâwiya) as vital and sacred space, teaching a master (Shaykh) as a leader and a literature as Islamic religious model.

The third chapter deals with synthesis mérinide around the back to the consensus within the sunna. Very influences observed between the currents of thought within Sunni Maghrib mérinides led to the holdings, faqîh the Sufis and Sharif in open discussions on issues that affect the issue of innovation and innovative in the Western Maghrib in particular the practice of Fuqara' organized and structured in gathering. The consensus was reached between majorities of Muslim scholars of all stripes for a return to the Sunna, especially at a form of Sufi very respect full religious laws.

Whether the trend Maliki Almoravid and Almohad Merinids or Mahdi, power, society and current culture coexist through a cycle that includes both the majority, that is to say, rallied to the official doctrine, and some exception in the field of Islamic culture. Therefore, between rallying and fear, stability always looking for a Muslim power is in this cultural dialectical way of Islam, which was no longer that of Arabia, but Islams from the evolution of this monotheistic religion. The western Maghrib, like the entire West, Muslim had not escaped this founding principle. No doubt when in a monotheistic religion interpretations are diversifying in recent become over the centuries acclimated with the historical events and golf society. The problem with these interpretations of Islam in these they have a common reference and legitimate differences, sometimes from one side while still others can going to the essential. The subject we have discussed is actually the second part of the differences, as this is the form of government of Western society Maghrib with the presence of the idea of being in compliance with the law al- Haqq. Sufism whether individual or collective expresses this development many times failed by conventional orthodoxy since the Legal Advisory fuqahâ 'almoravides against the book Ihyâ' Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, though recognizes the significant difficulties entering all the mysteries of the spiritual quest Sufism of and its path as social production.

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